Abstract Herpes zoster is an acute skin disease caused by relapse of varicella-zoster virus, which mainly occurs in the elderly and people with low immunity. Herpes zoster is a self-limiting disease characterized by rashes. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most complex and common adverse complication of herpes zoster. The pathogenesis of herpes zoster is complex, presumably related to T cell immunity. In this paper, the relationship between herpes zoster and T cells is reviewed, and the latest vaccine research is reviewed, which can provide reference for vaccine development and prevention of herpes zoster.