微生物与感染
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2020 Vol.15 No.1
Published 2020-02-25

New Year Greetings
Invited paper
Original Article
Review
) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 298KB] ( 532 )
 
Invited paper
3 WEN Yumei
Pathogenicity, prevention and control of coronaviruses
New coronaviruses causing human and/or animal diseases have continuously appeared in the last 50 years. Recently, a new coronavirus isolated from patients with unknown pathogen pneumonia in Wuhan has been sequenced. The World Health Organization state that “Preliminary identification of a novel virus in a short period of time is a notable achievement and demonstrates China’s increased capacity to manage new outbreaks.” This article briefly introduces the emerged new coronaviruses and makes suggestions for preventing and managing the outbreak of emerging coronaviruses or other viral diseases.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 3-6 [Abstract] ( 82 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 445KB] ( 1322 )
7 Pan Weihua,Liao Wanqing
Pay close attention on secondary fungal infections of coronavirus disease 2019
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, China and spread throughout the country. Up to now, the death toll has exceeded one thousand. Most of the treatments listed in the latest edition of diagnosis and treatment scheme, such as antiviral and antibacterial therapy, hormonotherapy, mechanical ventilation, and supportive treatment, are high risk factors for secondary fungal infections. As the mortality rate of patients with secondary fungal infection could be doubled, targeted prevention and treatment for secondary fungal infection is of great significance for COVID-19.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 7-11 [Abstract] ( 67 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 569KB] ( 645 )
12 XU Jianguo
Animal origin of 2019 novel coronavirus and control strategy
Current observations demonstrated that comparing compared with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is more infectious judged by transmission rate, epidemic scale and lower mortality. Its human-to-human spreading power is similar to influenza virus. Although the animal origin of the 2019-nCoV is still not identified, it should have something in common with SARS-CoV, since both of them are members of coronavirus. If the 2019-nCoV could not persistently exist in the population, like SARS-CoV, the control of wild animal infectious sources should be the top priority. If 2019-nCoV could persistently exist in the population, the vaccination will become a crucial means for prevention and control of the disease.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 12-15 [Abstract] ( 85 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 399KB] ( 522 )
 
Original Article
16 ZHANG Rong1, YI Zhigang1, WANG Yuyan1, TENG Zheng2, XU Wei1, SONG Wuhui1, CAI Xia1, SUN Zhiping1, GU Chenjian1, ZHOU Yanqiu2, CHEN Hongyou2, YE Rong1, HAN Wendong1, ZHU Yunkai1, FENG Fei1, FANG Fangha
Isolation of a 2019 novel coronavirus strain from a coronavirus disease 2019 patient in Shanghai
The spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) poses a serious threat to human health. We report here the isolation of a 2019-nCoV strain named nCoV-SH01 from the throat swab from a COVID-19 patient in Shanghai. The isolate grows well on Vero E6 cells with typical syncytial cytopathic effects. The nCoV-SH01 genome has been sequenced using sanger sequencing and Illumina sequencing and analyzed, which shares more than 99.99% identity to a reference sequence (GenBank MN988668 2019-nCoV Wuhan-Hu-1 isolate) with a difference of only three nucleotides. Immunofluorescence results showed that nCoV-SH01-infected cells reacted with the serum of a convalescent COVID-19 patient, suggesting virus replication in cultured cells. The isolation of nCoV-SH01 provides the basis on which cell and animal infection models would be established to facilitate the study of 2019-nCoV pathogenicity and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 16-21 [Abstract] ( 175 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 10247KB] ( 891 )
22 XU Yajia, WANG Yuyan, YE Rong
Domain B of murine coronavirus spike protein is necessary for the membrane fusion and antigenicity
Spike (S) protein is an essential transmembrane glycoprotein on the surface of coronaviruses. It has dual functions of receptor binding and membrane fusion for infection. Although most of the receptor binding domains (RBD) of S proteins are located in S1-CTD, or domain B, the receptor for beta-coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) binds to S1-NTD, or domain A, and the role of domain B remains unclear. By constructing and expression of domain B deletion mutants of S protein with S2 membrane fusion in neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a, we proved that the domain B is essential for cell-cell membrane fusion mediated by the S protein. Further analysis of polyclonal antibodies generated in mice revealed that domain B is not only the major antigenic determinant of S protein, but also a domain for significant neutralizing antibodies to inhibit viral infection. These results provided insights into the role of S protein in pathogenicity and infection of coronaviruses.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 22-30 [Abstract] ( 72 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7979KB] ( 726 )
31 Song Wuhui1,Pan Bin2,Kan Haidong2,Xu Yanyi2,Yi Zhigang1
Evaluation of heat inactivation of virus contamination on medical mask
The outbreak of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan and its continuous spread to almost all the area of China created an urgent need for personal protective equipment (PPE). Heat inactivating contaminated pathogens on the surface of PPE may provide a possible way to re-use PPE and alleviate the great burden of needs of PPE. We assessed the effect of heating inactivation of influenza virus on medical masks by baking and hair dryer. We also assessed mask filterability to PM2.5 after similar heating processes. Efficiency of viral inactivation was evaluated by infecting MDCK cells with the rescued virus and quantifying the viral RNA levels in the supernatants produced by the infected cells. Using theair dryer for 30 minutes effectively inactivated virus whereas baking at 56 ℃ for 30 min partially inactivated virus. Both hair dryer and baking did not significantly affect the mask filterability to ambient PM2.5. Although the results indicated that in the period that masks are insufficient for whole population, the community people can use this simple technique to regenerate masks for reuse, it is important to note that this method is not suitable for people who are in close contact with patients, medical staffs and laboratory technicians.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 31-35 [Abstract] ( 2220 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 8072KB] ( 1695 )
 
Review
36 CAI Xia, SUN Zhiping, QIAN Yun, HAN Wendong, QU Di
Proper selection and wearing of masks by different occupational populations
Masks are important to prevent respiratory tract exposure. Correct selection and wearing of masks can reduce the risk of respiratory-borne viral infections such as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The protection level of mask using will be affected by the types of mask, the face shape, the occupational nature of the crowd, the working environment and the correct wearing scheme based on the national standard, industry standard, diagnosis and treatment plan and other relevant data or research results, this paper discusses the key points of the selection and wearing of masks for different occupational groups, so as to provide reference for different groups to apply correct respiratory protective measures, and reduce the exposure risk of various groups and facilitate the control of epidemic situation.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 36-40 [Abstract] ( 75 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 579KB] ( 1176 )
41 Miao Xiaohui
Individual protection of 2019 novel coronavirus
The individual protection for COVID-19 should be established on the correct reading of its contagion. Correct understanding of the path of infection and taking right scientific advice for prevention are two of the resources when an individual face the contagion.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 41-43 [Abstract] ( 57 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 423KB] ( 477 )
44 RAO Lin1,2,3,HAN Wendong3,4,LI Hong1,2,CHEN Li3
Proper selection and use of personal protective equipment for healthcare providers in the battle against coronavirus disease 2019
Personal protective equipment (PPE) are essential nosocomial control devices to reduce the risk of occupational infection. At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe global concern, causing more than 70 thousand infections and around 27 hundred deaths. In addition, it already infected more than 3 thousand medical staffs, posted new risks and challengers to our healthcare system and medical professionals, especially the ones working in close distance with COVID-19 patients. In this paper, the current standards of PPE, proper use procedures for PPE and special attentions needed to prevent protected exposure are reviewed and discussed.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 44-51 [Abstract] ( 60 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 884KB] ( 630 )
52 LIU Bin, QIN Zhaoling, QI Zhongtian
Genomic structure and protein profiles of 2019 novel coronavirus
In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in Wuhan and spread rapidly in China and some other countries and regions. World Health Organization declared it is a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. Sequence and clinical analysis showed 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is the causative agent. 2019-nCoV is a single positive strand RNA virus with a genome of about 30 kb. The genome is composed of two untranslated regions at both ends and multiple encoding regions for non-structural proteins (NSPs) and structural proteins. ORF1a and ORF1b encode 16 NSPs. The structural proteins include spike (S) protein, envelope (E) protein, membrane (M) protein and nucleocapsid (N) protein. Understanding genomic structure and protein functions of 2019-nCoV would be helpful to explore 2019-nCoV’s traceability, replication and proliferation, pathogenic immunity, drug and vaccine development, as well as the current epidemic prevention and control.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 52-57 [Abstract] ( 124 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1262KB] ( 2451 )
58 Liu Wei,Li Ruoyu
Potential secondary invasive fungal infection in coronavirus disease 2019 secondary invasive
The outbreak of Novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan have significantly threatened to the global health, especially to China. The potential of the secondary invasive fungal infection of Novel coronavirus pneumonia is an important factor threatening the life, especially the ones in severe medical conditions. Beside comprehensive fungal examinations for patients with high risks, support for novel detective techniques and novel effective approaches to inactivate pathogenic microbes are urgently needed. These strategies will provide substantial basis for overcoming novel coronavirus pneumonia as well as the secondary fungal infection.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 58-61 [Abstract] ( 74 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 503KB] ( 620 )
62 LIU Tiantian, WANG Yong-Xiang, WANG Yang, YUAN Wenjie
Super spreader in epidemic of infectious diseases
A super spreader is an infected individual who can disproportionally and efficiently transmit a specific pathogen to more than 10 naïve individuals, most of them are family members, health care workers, and other close-contact persons. Super spreaders were frequently reported in the recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, demonstrated that early discovery and management of super spreaders are critical measures to control epidemics. The formation, characterization and interventions of super spreaders are reviewed in this paper.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 62-64 [Abstract] ( 81 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 301KB] ( 633 )
65 WANG Yaping1, ZHANG Min2, LI Min3, ZHANG Zhen4, PAN Tingting5, ZHAO Chao5,6
Psychological protection of healthcare professionals under the challenges of coronavirus disease 2019
The outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia has become an international public health emergency. Chinese healthcare professionals have invested a large amount of human resources to cope with it. Besides heavy working pressure, they are under tremendous psychological pressure as well. In this study, the psychological problems that medical personnel may face under the situation of COVID-19 were analyzed, and self-resolution suggestions were provided.
2020 Vol. 15 (1): 65-70 [Abstract] ( 79 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 868KB] ( 829 )
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