Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), Biosafety Level 3 Laboratory, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Infectious Disease and Biosecurity, Shanghai 200032, China
Abstract：Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, which mainly occurs in Central and West Africa. Monkeypox virus can infect a variety of mammals and mainly prevails in the animals. Human can be infected by contacting the virus-infected animals. The clinical manifestations of monkeypox are similar to that of smallpox, but the symptoms are mild. Smallpox vaccination can provide immune protection against monkeypox. However, due to the elimination of smallpox in the world, smallpox vaccination was stopped, and monkeypox has become the most serious orthopoxvirus disease. Recently, the epidemic trend of monkeypox has switched from sporadic cases in natural foci (tropical rain forests in Central and Western Africa) to spread in Europe. On May 7, 2022, monkeypox cases were reported in the UK. Subsequently, more than 100 monkeypox cases and suspected cases were confirmed in Europe. The main transmission ways are contacting with infected animals, and contacting directly or indirectly with patients. On May 20, 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) held an emergency meeting on the monkeypox epidemic to alert for awareness of monkeypox and to prepare for prevention and response. WHO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States and the UK Department of Health reported the relevant monkeypox epidemic and formulated the corresponding prevention and control measures. So far, there is no report of imported monkeypox virus in China. But due to frequent international exchanges, we have to be vigilant for monkeypox. Here this paper will introduce the epidemic status of monkeypox and the information about its prevention and control.