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2021 Vol.16 No.3
Published 2021-06-25

Original Article
Case Analysis
Review
) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3822KB] ( 208 )
164 HE Yanchao1,2, ZHANG Jin1,2, FENG Jinjin1,2, JIE Zhijun1,2
The role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in inflammation mediated by macrophage infected with H1N1 influenza
To investigate the role of HIF-1α in inflammation mediated by macrophage infect with H1N1(PR8). Mouse macrophages(RAW264.7) were infected with PR8 and sacrificed at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h post infection(HPI), the mRNA expression levels of HIF-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, M protein(MBP) were determined by real-time PCR. HIF-1α and NF-κB, MAPK, Akt, MBP protein expression levels were detected by Western Blot. In inhibition test, HIF-1α was inhibited by 2-MeOE-2(10 nmol/L), after 24 h, IL-6, TNF-α, MBP mRNA levels and NF-κB, MAPK, Akt, MBP NF-κB, MAPK, Akt protein levels were detected. The results demonstrated that the viral load in infected cells peaked on 24 HPI, HIF-1α mRNA level increased transiently 6 HPI, and peaked on 24 DPI,so it is the same with IFN-γ、IL-6、TNF-α mRNA. After inhibiting HIF-1α in PR8-infected RAW264.7 cells with 2-MeOE-2(10 nmol/L), IL-6、TNF-α mRNA level were decreased when compared with control group (P<0.05). NF-κB protein expression was also decreased when compared with control group. It was concluded that HIF-1α may induce inflammation in H1N1 infection through up-regulating NF-κB pathway of macrophage.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 164-170 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 6169KB] ( 169 )
171 ZHANG Li, HUANG Weijin
Effects of calcium and magnesium supplemented on hepatitis E virus infection of hepatocytes
To examine the effect of calcium and magnesium on hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in PLC/PRF/5 cells, quantitative real-time fluorescent RT-PCR and ELISA were used to detect the viral nucleic acid and antigen content of HEV. The virus nucleic acid and ORF2 antigen in the cells and supernatant were examined at different time points after HEV infection in the presence of EGTA, calcium or magnesium. The addition of calcium and magnesium to the cell culture medium increased virus binding, whereas chelating agents inhibited HEV binding 1 to 24 h after HEV incubation. Both calcium and magnesium increased the production of HEV in the cell culture medium of PLC/PRF/5 cells after two to five weeks, while calcium had more obvious effect than magnesium. Calcium and magnesium could promote HEV infection in PLC/PRF/5 cells. The addition of calcium and magnesium in the HEV culture is helpful for the production of viruses.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 171-175 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 597KB] ( 160 )
176 XIE Hui1, QI Zhizhen1, YANG Xiaoyan1, YUAN Jing2, LI Xiang1, ZHAO Haihong1
Sensitivity and specificity of loop-mediated isothermal amplification in detection of Yersinia pestis
The present paper aims to study the sensitivity and specificity of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in detection of Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) from all natural plague foci of China. The LAMP was established based on the specific primers targeting 3a gene of Y. pestis. Sixty-five Y. pestis strains were isolated from 11 natural plague foci of China, and Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were set as control strains. The results of LAMP detection were consistent with three standard diagnostic methods of plague (reverse indirect haemagglutination test, colloidal gold immunochromatography assay and conventional polymerase chain reaction method). The 65 Y. pestis strains were all positive, while Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica and E. coli were negative, suggesting that the established LAMP method was highly specific for Y. pestis. It has the advantages of fast, simple, low requirements on equipment, with a potential application in field monitoring and detection in remote areas for plague prevention and control.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 176-182 [Abstract] ( 10 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3870KB] ( 149 )
 
Case Analysis
183 FU Xiaoying, ZHU Xiong, MAI Zhen, WANG Licheng, WANG Chongzhen, HAN Limei, LI Huan, CHEN Hai
Pseudomonas oryzihabitans isolated from a patient with multiple organ failure
Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (P. oryzihabitans), as an opportunistic pathogen and nosocomial infection bacteria, is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, who achieved favorable prognosis after anti-infection. Cases of multiple organ failure are rare.The patient in this case whose bilateral lower limb edema for more than half a month without obvious inducement, followed by fatigue, shortness of breath and oliguria for 3 days, which then caused multiple organ failure. Strain TS383 of gram-negative bacilli was isolated from blood culture and identified as P. oryzihabitans by biochemical identification, MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 7.0 software and found to be related to Pseudomonas psychrotolerans. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) was conducted by Kirby-Bauer (K-B), which showed that the strain TS383 was sensitive to ceftazidine, gentamicin, imipenem and levofloxacin, but resistant to ampicillin, cefazoline and other drugs. The patient was treated with imipenem cilastatin combined with moxifloxacin, but it was unable to track the follow-up results as his family requested discharge. This case indicates that the microbiological laboratory personnel should pay more attention to the researches of P. oryzihabitans infection for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 183-188 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 5799KB] ( 188 )
 
Review
189 LIANG Tianyu, LI Ruoyu, LIU Wei
Advances in the study of amphotericin B: mechanisms of antifungal action and resistance mechanisms in pathogenic Aspergillus terreus
Amphotericin B (AMB) is a classical polyene antifungal agent with powerful and broad-spectrum activity against pathogenic fungi, and less likely to be resistant. Aspergillus terreus, a clinically common pathogenic Aspergillus, is gaining attention due to intrinsic AMB resistance. At present, the mode of antifungal action of AMB needs to be further elucidated, and little is known about the mechanism of AMB resistance. This review addresses the novel mode of action by which AMB induces increased endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Aspergillus terreus. Also, the role of stress adaptation pathways (heat shock protein 90, heat shock protein 70, and calcineurin), ROS scavenging enzymes, as well as mitochondrial function in the mechanisms of AMB resistance in Aspergillus terreus is highlighted. These novel findings are of great significance in understanding both action and resistance mechanism of AMB in other pathogenic Aspergilli spp. with clinical importance.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 189-195 [Abstract] ( 16 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2333KB] ( 151 )
196 ZHANG Shuxin, CAI Qiliang, ZHU Caixia
The application of organoid tissue model in the pathogen infection diseases
Organoid is a multicellular cluster formed by tissue stem cells cultured in 3D in vitro, which has the ability of self-proliferation and multi-directional differentiation. Due to it is similar to the gene, structure and function of the source organ in space and structure, it can be used to simulate the growth, differentiation and organ formation process of tissue cells in vivo, drug screening and evaluation, biomedical materials and tissue engineering. Increasing evidence shows that different kinds of organs and tissues can be used to simulate the process of pathogen invasion in vitro. This review summarizes the research progress and application prospect of organoids model in pathogenic infection related diseases.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 196-207 [Abstract] ( 28 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 11191KB] ( 150 )
208 PU Bingchun1, QIN Jinhong2
Advance on mobile genetic elements of Klebsiella pneumoniae genome
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the most important pathogens clinically, which has caused a great threat to human health. In recent years, bacterial resistance is a major problem in the treatment of K. pneumoniae infections, especially the emergence of highly virulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. It has been reported that the resistance genes and virulence genes of K. pneumoniae were mainly transmitted by their mobile genetic elements. This review mainly introduces several common mobile elements on the genome of K. pneumoniae (including plasmids, prophages, insertion sequences, integrative and conjugative elements) and their relation to resistance and pathogenicity. The mechanisms in the spread of resistance genes and virulence genes are also reviewed, which will be helpful in understanding and controlling K. pneumonia infections.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 208-213 [Abstract] ( 16 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 943KB] ( 152 )
214 FU Zhangfan, AI Jingwen
Research progress of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and corona virus disease 2019 treatment  
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (sever acute respiratory syndrome, SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (middle east respiratory syndrome, MERS), and new coronavirus pneumonia (corona virus disease 2019, COVID-19) have brought serious illnesses to people all over the world. Economic loss and mental injury, given that there are no new cases of SARS and little progress in research, this article focuses on the treatment of MERS and COVID-19. The treatments of MERS and COVID-19 are similar. Nucleoside analogs, lopinavir/ritonavir, neutralizing antibodies, glucocorticoids, and other potential therapies (new use of old drugs) have been used clinically. Due to the wide spread of COVID-19 and the large number of infected people, some new drugs have emerged, such as Remdesivir, REGN-COV2 antibody, LY-CoV555 antibody, etc., but the current effect is not good, and the clinical diagnosis and treatment plan has yet to be improved. This article reviews the research progress in the treatment of SARS, MERS and COVID-19, and provides a theoretical basis for further research on their treatment options, improving treatment effects, and reducing mortality.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 214-220 [Abstract] ( 14 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 657KB] ( 157 )
221 LAI Jingzhen1,2,3, ZHANG Hong1,2, LIANG Hao1,2, NING Chuanyi1,4
Human immunodeficiency virus anatomy reservoir and detection methods
The existence of human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir makes it impossible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients to eliminate HIV from their bodies even after receiving highly effective antiretroviral therapy. In order to clarify the existence of HIV reservoir in vivo, we reviewed the literatures of potential anatomy HIV reservoirs and in-house detection methods for HIV reservoir.
2021 Vol. 16 (3): 221-226 [Abstract] ( 11 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 515KB] ( 154 )
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